Editor's note: When first published in the Does God Exist? bulletin this article covered two issues: January/February 2011 and March/April 2011. With this online edition of this article the two parts were recombined as the author originally wrote it.  The endnotes and the bibliography are at the end of this online article, unlike in the printed versions.

From the very beginning of Christianity the message has been that Jesus died, was buried, and was raised from the dead. In the first recorded sermon, Peter boldly proclaimed regarding Jesus: “This man was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge; and you, with the help of wicked men, put him to death by nailing him to the cross. But God raised him from the dead, freeing him from the agony of death, because it was impossible for death to keep its hold on him. … God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact” (Acts 2:23 – 24, 32). 1

The “fact” to which Peter referred was nothing less than the conquering of death, the enemy of mankind since the beginning. This message — that there is life beyond the grave — quickly became the central theme of the preaching of the disciples of Jesus and the foundation of the Christian faith.

The resurrection from the dead is a common theme in the New Testament. The concept of the resurrection and life after death, however, had its beginnings in the Old Testament. In this issue we are going to briefly examine the resurrection in the Old Testament.


The Hebrew religion tended to place emphasis primarily on the present life. Blessings or punishment, for individuals or the nation of Israel, were seen as occurring at either the present time, or if in the future, through descendants. That is not to say, however, that there was no concept of an afterlife among the Hebrew people. There are passages in the Old Testament that many believe teach that life exists beyond the grave. Unlike the New Testament, however, there is no clearly defined doctrine of the resurrection in the Old Testament. The passages in the Old Testament provide at best a glimpse into the afterlife but nothing to compare with the hope expressed in the New Testament.

The development of the concept of the resurrection in the Old Testament begins perhaps as early as the Garden of Eden with the promise that came with the curse resulting from the first sin (Genesis 3:15). Over time the concept became more developed through further revelation especially in the books of the Wisdom Literature and the Prophets. Later in the Old Testament period the concept of the resurrection became more fully developed among the Hebrew people. This can be seen, for example, in the fact that Jesus condemned the Sadducees for their denial of the resurrection (Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:27; Luke 20:38). Thus, by the time of Jesus there was some expectation of existence after death among the Jewish people.

Before looking at specific passages related to the concept of the resurrection it is necessary to first examine the concept of death as found in the Old Testament. The Old Testament concept of human beings consisted of a physical body made of flesh (basar), a spirit (ruah), and a soul (nephesh). Death, in Hebrew thought involved all three of these entities. The physical body is made of dust and returns to the dust after death (Genesis 2:7; 3:19). It was also believed that at death the spirit (or breath) is withdrawn (Psalm 104:29; Ecclesiastes 12:7), and the soul (nephesh) was sent to sheol or the place of the dead (Psalm 16:10).

Thus, in the Old Testament death is viewed as the end of physical life but not the termination of existence. The dead, though separated from this life, continued to exist.

Sheol represented a dark and unknown existence, but there was still some hope in the minds of the Hebrew people. David, for example, wrote in reference to God in Psalm 139:8: “If I make my bed in the depths (sheol) you are there.”

There are several examples in the Old Testament of God miraculously intervening in the natural processes of death. Although these are not directly related to the resurrection, they are important in understanding existence after death. These events related to death or the afterlife fall into three categories. The first of these events involved the raising of certain individuals from the dead. These include (1) the son of the widow of Zerephath (1 Kings 17:17 – 24), (2) the son of the Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:18 – 37), and (3) a man thrown into Elisha’s grave (2 Kings 13:20 – 21). In miracles such as these, known as revitalization or resuscitation, a person was returned to his or her previous life. Apparently, however, these individuals eventually died again.

The second of these events occurred when Enoch (Genesis 5:24; cf. Hebrews 11:5) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:10 –11) were taken by God from this life into another realm. The details are few, but it appears that Enoch and Elijah passed from this life into the next without experiencing death, as we know it.

The third event was the strange account of the “witch” of Endor calling Samuel from the grave (1 Samuel 28:3 – 25). Although this has little to do with the concept of the resurrection, bringing Samuel back from the dead would, like the previous examples, at least confirm that death is not annihilation and that individuals continue to exist after death.

In addition to these historical events there are also several Old Testament passages that refer either directly or indirectly to the raising of the dead or life after death. It is recorded, for example, that Hannah said in her prayer, “The LORD brings death and makes alive; he brings down to the grave and raises up” (1 Samuel 2:6). Although the language is not very specific, this passage would at least suggest that God could raise the dead and deliver a person from sheol.

In another passage, Job speaks of seeing God after death: “And after my skin has been destroyed, yet will I see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes — I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!” (Job 19:25 – 27). Not all scholars agree that this is a reference to the resurrection. It would seem, however, that the statement reflects at least a belief in an existence after death or even an actual reference to the resurrection.

There are several passages in the Psalms that give additional insight into life after death. One example is found in Psalm 16:9 –11, especially in verse 10, which reads: “because you will not abandon me to the grave [sheol], nor will you let your Holy One see decay.” This verse is especially significant in light of the fact that it was quoted by Peter in Acts 2:25 – 28 in reference to the resurrection of Jesus. Another is found in Psalm 49:15, which reads: “But God will redeem my life from the grave; he will surely take me to himself.” (See also Psalms 17:15 and 73:23  – 26.)

The clearest expressions in the Old Testament of belief in life after death and resurrection of the dead are found in the prophets. 2 In Isaiah 25:8, for example, Isaiah prophesied that God “will swallow up death forever.” Another example is in Isaiah 26:19, which reads: “But your dead will live; their bodies will rise. You who dwell in the dust, wake up and shout for joy. Your dew is like the dew of the morning; the earth will give birth to her dead.” Some scholars interpret these prophecies in reference to restoring the people of Israel as a nation, while others, see these passages as clear references to a resurrection of the dead.

Isaiah 53:10 – 12 is another prophecy that is often seen as relevant to the concept of the resurrection. As a part of the Suffering Servant passages in Isaiah, this is especially applicable to the resurrection of Jesus.

The prophecy of Ezekiel concerning the dry bones coming to life certainly uses language that is suggestive of a resurrection of the dead (Ezekiel 37:1 –14). This passage is usually interpreted, however, as a reference to the future raising up and restoring of the nation rather than individuals. Many scholars also interpret the prophecy in Hosea 6:1– 3 as referring to the restoration of the people of Israel even though Hosea also used language suggestive of a bodily resurrection.

The Old Testament passage which is most commonly interpreted to be a reference to the resurrection of the dead is Daniel 12:2 which reads: “Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt.” Even this prophecy by Daniel is lacking in specific details. Like some of the other Old Testament passages examined here, however, it does point to a future time when the dead will be raised.

Thus, even though the Jewish people had a limited understanding of death and future life, they were not left without a future hope. And that hope, was to be manifested in the person of Jesus Christ, as he alone was able to conquer that enemy of mankind — death itself.


The hope of a future resurrection in Jewish thinking became more developed during the intertestamental period and was common at the time of Jesus ministry. That does not necessarily mean that there was uniform agreement, however. The Pharisees, for example, were known for their belief in a physical, bodily resurrection, while the Sadducees did not believe in a resurrection of the dead.

Of those Jewish people who did believe in a resurrection of the dead, the most common view was that the righteous would he raised from the dead on the last day. This can be seen for example in Martha’s reply to Jesus when he told her that her brother would rise from the dead. She said to Jesus, “I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day” (John 11:24).


The raising of the dead was a part of the ministry of Jesus as it is recorded in the Gospels. For example, when questioned by the disciples of John if he was “the one who was to come,” Jesus’ reply included a list of miraculous healings along with the statement that “the dead are raised” (Matthew 11:5; Luke 7:22). Also, when Jesus sent out the twelve disciples he gave them instructions to not only heal the sick, but to “raise the dead’ (Matthew 10:8).

The Gospels also contain four specific examples of individuals that were raised from the dead. These include the son of a widow of Nain (Luke 7:11  –17), daughter of Jairus (Matthew 9:18  –19, 23 – 26; Mark: 5:21 – 24, 35 – 43; Luke 8:40 – 42, 49 – 56), Lazarus (John 11:1 – 44), and people who were raised at the time of Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection (Matthew 27:52  – 53).

The widow’s son and Jairus’ daughter were similar events and reminiscent of the raising of the dead by Elijah and Elisha in the Old Testament. Both individuals had been dead only a relatively short time, and thus more correctly were examples of revitalization or resuscitation. Physical life was restored to the dead bodies and the individuals continued to live for a time in the same bodily form that they had before death.

The raising of Lazarus, however, was different from the others. Lazarus had been dead for four days and the processes of decomposition would have been well underway. There was a Jewish tradition at the time that after death the soul remained near the body for three days in case the person might somehow be resuscitated. Lazarus had been dead for four days and thus beyond even this distant hope. Thus, the raising of Lazarus was obviously intended to demonstrate God’s power over death that was manifested in Jesus.

LazarusThe final example of people raised from the dead in the Gospels is the brief account in Matthew of several people emerging from their graves at the time of Jesus’ crucifixion, or more correctly, his resurrection. Jewish beliefs would have anticipated an event such as this to occur at the coming of the Messiah. Nothing is known, however, outside of Matthew’s account and the event remains obscure.

The Gospels also contain several examples of Jesus’ teaching on the resurrection and life after death. Jesus’ discussion with the Sadducees on the nature of the resurrection is one such example (Mark 12:18 – 27; Matthew 22:23 – 33; Luke 20:27 – 40). The Sadducees, as noted earlier, did not believe in the resurrection of the dead. Many of those Jewish people who did believe in the resurrection, assumed that those who experienced the resurrection would resume their earthly life and relationships. This was the point of the exaggerated story of the woman and her various husbands presented by the Sadducees. Jesus, however, took a different view. As he put it, “When the dead rise, they will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like angels in heaven” (Mark 12:25). This should not be misunderstood to suggest that the resurrected person will be some sort of spirit without a body. Rather, it seems that Jesus is teaching that after the resurrection, physical relationships, such as marriage, will no longer exist.

Jesus also at times taught on the general subject of eternal life. One example occurred when a man came to Jesus asking, “What must I do to inherit eternal life?” (Mark 10:17 – 31; Matthew 19:16 – 30; Luke 18:18 – 30). In the discussion that followed this incident, Jesus indicated that eternal life is to be in “the age to come” (Mark 10:30), thus affirming that there will be life after death

In the Gospel of John there are several occasions in which Jesus spoke of raising the dead. One example is found in John 5:21 where Jesus said “For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son gives life to whom he is pleased to give it.” Jesus continued this thought further by stating that “a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his [Son of Man’s] voice and come out — those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned” (John 5:28 – 29). Jesus clearly teaches here the future raising of the dead in a manner suggestive of`Daniel’s prophecy (Daniel 12:2 – 3). He also asserts that he, himself has been given authority to accomplish this.

Perhaps the most explicit teaching on the resurrection is found within the context of the raising of Lazarus (John 11:1 – 44). Speaking to Martha, Jesus said, “Your brother will rise again” (verse 23). Following Martha’s reply expressing the Jewish belief in a final resurrection, Jesus said, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die” (verses 25 – 26). Thus, Jesus clearly stated that even though one who believes in him may experience physical death, that person can anticipate being raised to a life that knows no death. As Jesus expressed it, “whoever lives and believes in me will never die.”

In addition to Jesus’ teaching on the resurrection, the Gospels also contain several examples of predictions, or prophecies, made by Jesus concerning his own resurrection. The more well known of these are found in Mark 8:31, 9:31, and 10:33 – 34 and the parallels in Matthew and Luke.

Jesus ResurrectedIn these passages Jesus clearly predicted that he would die and be raised again on the third day. Because he predicted specific events, some have questioned the authenticity of these statements. It is assumed here, however, that Jesus did in fact make these statements prior to his death and that he was predicting that he would be bodily raised from the dead.

The final chapters of the Gospels contain specific details concerning the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus. These events are presented in a factual manner. The supernatural or miraculous nature of Jesus’ resurrection and the presentation of it as objective, historical fact have been questioned by some individuals. 3 It is not the purpose of this study, however, to examine the authenticity of the resurrection event. This subject has been examined in detail by numerous authors. 4

Assuming that the Gospels do in fact contain valid historical information, at least three conclusions may be drawn from the accounts of the resurrection of Jesus. The first is the clear presentation in the Gospels that Jesus was raised from the dead. This is given in the details of the resurrection accounts with further evidence supplied by the post-resurrection appearances. 5

Secondly, the Gospel accounts indicate that Jesus was bodily resurrected from the dead. Following his resurrection, he was not some sort of disembodied spirit or “ghost,” but rather had a body that was recognizable to others.

Third, it may be concluded from the Gospel accounts that Jesus was not merely revitalized or resuscitated in the same manner that others had been raised from the dead previously. He was rather raised to a new existence, or a new way of life.


The book of Acts contains primarily historical narrative. As such, it begins with events following the period of Jesus life and ministry, and then proceeds to give a brief history of the disciples and early church. In regard to the doctrine of the resurrection, Acts contains a record of two types of events. First, there is the record of the miraculous raising of two individuals from the dead. Secondly, Acts also contains several examples of the earliest teaching of Jesus’ disciples that include numerous references to the resurrection.

The two recorded examples in Acts of the raising of the dead are similar in many ways to those discussed previously from the Old Testament and the Gospels. The first involves the death of an early Christian named Tabitha or Dorcas (Acts 9:36 – 42). The account illustrates primarily the miraculous power of God that was given to the apostles in the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in Acts 2.

The second example is the brief account of Paul raising the young man Eutychus from the dead after he had fallen from an upper story window (Acts 20:7  –12). The details are somewhat similar to those recorded in the Old Testament of miracles perfumed by Elijah and Elisha and like the previous example, demonstrated the miraculous power that Paul had received from the Holy Spirit.

Like those other accounts of revitalization or resuscitation discussed previously, these two examples certainly point to God’s power over death but do not address directly the belief in the resurrection to a new life.

It is in regard to this belief that Acts marks a turning point in the doctrine of the resurrection. This can be clearly seen in the unfolding of the events in Acts, primarily in the teaching of the two main characters in Acts — Peter and Paul.

Peter & TabithaPeter, for example, asserted that the replacement for Judas must have been a witness to the resurrection of Jesus (1:22). It was also Peter who on the day of Pentecost made the first public announcement that Jesus had been raised from the dead (2:24, 31, 32). There are also several examples of Peter, and at times other apostles with him, affirming that God had raised Jesus from the dead (3:15; 4:2; 4:10; 5:30). Luke also provided a summary statement that the disciples had continued to testify that Jesus had been resurrected (4:33), even in the face of opposition and persecution. In Acts 10 Peter expands the sphere of this teaching to the Gentiles by proclaiming that Jesus had been raised from the dead to those gathered at Cornelius’ house (10:40, 41).

In the latter chapters of Acts the account focuses on the activities of Paul. Like Peter, Paul openly and boldly proclaimed that Jesus had been raised from the dead. This included brief recorded statements by Paul at Pisidian Antioch (13:30, 34, 37), in Thessalonica (17:3), in Athens (17:18, 32), and also before the Sanhedrin (23:6), Felix (24:15), and Agrippa (26:8).

It is fairly obvious from the brief summary of the recorded activities of Peter and Paul in Acts that the resurrection had quickly become the central theme of the gospel. It is primarily in the New Testament letters that follow, however, that the doctrine of the resurrection reaches its fullest development.


The resurrection was central to Paul’s theology. This may be seen in his frequent references to the resurrection. In his writing Paul frequently affirmed the resurrection of Christ (Galatians 1:1; Romans 4:24; Ephesians 1:20). He also affirmed that it was God who had raised Jesus from the dead (Romans 4:24 – 25; 6:4), and God who will likewise raise believers from the dead (1 Corinthians 6:14; 2 Corinthians 4:14).

The resurrection, in fact, permeates all of Paul ’s writing. In Romans 1:4, for example, the sonship of Christ is linked to the resurrection. Paul also linked the resurrection of Christ with the justification and reconciliation of Christians (Romans 4:24 – 25; 5:10). In Romans 8:11 Paul associates the Spirit with the raising of Jesus as well as giving life to our mortal bodies. Also, in Romans 8:34 Paul described the resurrected Jesus as interceding for Christians. Belief in the resurrection of Jesus was also associated by Paul with salvation in Romans 10:9.

It is also important to note that for Paul, Christ conquered death through his resurrection. For example, Romans 6:9 reads; “For we know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him.” Unlike those who had been raised to life only to die again at a later time, Jesus was raised to never die again.

It is also in this chapter of Romans (6:1 –14) that Paul deals with the relationship between the resurrection of Jesus and the symbolic death and resurrection of the believer in baptism, as well as the promise of the future resurrection of the believer.

One of the more lengthy treatments of the resurrection in Paul’s writings is found in the letters to the Thessalonian church (1 Thessalonians 4:13 – 5:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:1 –12). Apparently some of the Christians in Thessalonica had questions about those who had died and would not be alive to meet Christ upon his return. Concerning the resurrection of those who had died, Paul explained that they will rise to meet Christ, along with those faithful who are living at the time of his return (1 Thessalonians 4:15 –17).

The most extensive treatment of the resurrection in Paul’s writings, and the entire New Testament for that matter, is found in 1 Corinthians 15. In this chapter, Paul first of all preserves what is likely to be the earliest Christian tradition regarding the resurrection of Christ (verses 3 – 8), which had been handed down to him from those who had themselves witnessed the resurrected Christ before his own conversion.

It would appear from verse 12 that some among the church in Corinth were teaching that there is no resurrection of the dead. Paul responded to this in three ways. First, he established the basic truth that Christ had been raised from the dead on the evidence of eyewitnesses to the resurrected Lord (15:1 –11). Second, Paul shows the consequences of their denial that there is a resurrection of the dead. If the dead are not raised, then Christ was not raised, and if Christ was not raised, then their faith is worthless (15:12 –19). Third, Paul then stated that if Christ was raised, then that is evidence that death has been conquered, and that the dead in Christ will also be raised (15:20 – 28).

In the latter part of the chapter (15:35 – 58), Paul then addresses the question: “How are the dead raised?” (verse 35). In particular, Paul discusses: “With what kind of body will they come?” (verse 35). For Paul, it was a matter of comparison or analogy. He used the images of the kernel of grain and the shoot, different “kinds” of “flesh,” various heavenly bodies, “natural” and “spiritual” bodies, the “first Adam” and the “last Adam,” and the “earthly man” and “man from heaven” to illustrate his point (15:37 – 49).

Paul finally concluded then, that “flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God” and that “we will all be changed — in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye” from a perishable, mortal body to an imperishable, immortal body (verses 50 – 52). This was the “mystery” which Paul revealed — that we will be raised, never to die again. As a result, death will finally be conquered, or as Paul put it, “Death has been swallowed up in victory.”


Certainly Paul wrote more on the resurrection than any other writer in the New Testament. There are, however, several additional references to the doctrine of the resurrection in the latter books of the New Testament.

Although there are few direct references to the resurrection in Hebrews, the whole presentation of Christ as high priest assumes it. It begins, for example, in the first chapter where Christ (as God’s Son) is said to be sitting “at the right hand of Majesty in heaven” after having “provided purification for sins” (1:3). Thus, although not specifically mentioned, the resurrection is implied by the author. This is also the case in later passages in Hebrews (4:14; 7:23 – 28) which refer to Jesus as a high priest. The resurrection of Jesus is also alluded to in Hebrews 2:14 – 15. Here the writer spoke of Jesus as sharing in humanity “so that by his death he might destroy him who holds the power of death — that is, the devil.”

There are also two additional passages in Hebrews that refer to the resurrection. In Hebrews 6:1  – 2 the writer referred to “elementary teachings about Christ.” It is interesting to note that the “resurrection from the dead” was one of those teachings mentioned. The beginning of the verse suggests that the recipients of the letter should “leave the elementary teachings about Christ and go on to maturity.” It is interesting that the resurrection, something so difficult for many to accept was considered a basic belief of Christianity by the author of Hebrews.

In chapter 11 of Hebrews (11:35) the author speaks of women receiving back their dead raised again. Some scholars interpret this as a reference to the miracles of raisingResurrection the dead in the Old Testament. Also in this verse is a reference to a “better resurrection” which is likely referring to the final resurrection that leads to eternal life rather than being raised to the same physical existence.

There are also a few references to the resurrection in the last books of the New Testament. For example, the resurrection is mentioned in 1 Peter 1:20 – 21 where Peter spoke of a hope that Christians have in “the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.” The resurrection of Christ is also found in 1 Peter 3:21 – 22 and alluded to elsewhere in the letter (4: 11ff; 5:10ff).

There are no references to the resurrection in the letters of James and Jude. Neither is it a topic in John’s epistles. The resurrection is certainly assumed by John, however, since he wrote as one who had witnessed the “Word of Life” (1 John 1:1).

Revelation is a “book centering on the risen Christ.” He is described, for example in Revelation 1:5 as “the first born from the dead.” Also, in the early chapters of Revelation, it is indicated that John recorded the very words of the risen Christ. The “one who was slain” was the object of the worship scene depicted in chapter 5 (5:9). This too is an obvious reference to Jesus. Finally, the resurrection is also mentioned in Revelation 20. There, however, it is clothed in the imagery of apocalyptic literature, which has been open to many interpretations.


Paul summarized the situation well in 1 Corinthians 15:13 –14 when he wrote: “If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is useless and so is your faith.”

The resurrection of Jesus is presented in the New Testament not only as an historical fact but also as the basis for the belief in the future resurrection of believers as well. Without the resurrection, Christianity is worse than hopeless, it is a fraud. Thus, the resurrection is the central foundation upon which the Christian faith is built.

A belief in the resurrection of the dead had its beginning in the Old Testament, but was not fully developed until the time of the New Testament. It is there in the New Testament, in the teaching of Jesus, the witness of the disciples to the empty tomb and resurrected Lord, and the development of the doctrine by the New Testament writers, that we can begin to understand the concepts of the resurrection of the dead and life after death.

  1. All biblical quotations are taken from the New International Version.  Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 Biblica (International Bible Society). Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.
  2. Bible scholars are not in complete agreement on the meaning of some of these passages. See commentaries listed in the bibliography for more details.
  3. The resurrection accounts found in the Gospels are located in Matthew 28:1-20; Mark 16:1-18; Luke 24:1-53; and John 20:1-21.
  4. See the bibliography for specific resources.
  5. The recorded post-resurrection appearances of Jesus are as follows:
  1. To Mary Magdalene (John 20:11-17)
  2. To the other Mary and Salone (Matthew 28:9-10)
  3. To Peter (Luke 24:34)
  4. To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-32)
  5. To the ten apostles (Luke 24:33-49)
  6. To Thomas and the other ten apostles (John 20:26-30)
  7. To the seven apostles (John 21:1-25)
  8. To all the apostles in Galilee (Matthew 28:16-20)
  9. To 500 brethren (1 Corinthians 15:16)
  10. To James (1 Corinthians 15:7)
  11. To the eleven apostles before his ascension (Acts 1:4-9)
  12. To Paul (Corinthians 15:8)
Selected Bibliography

Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.
Butler, Paul T. Daniel. Bible Study Textbook Series. Joplin, MO: College Press, 1970.
Craig, William Lane. "On Doubts About the Resurrection." Modern Theology 16 (Oct 1989): 53-75.
Ferguson, Everett. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.
France, Richard T. The Gospel According to Matthew: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.
Geisler, Norman L. "The Significance of Christ's Physical Resurrection." Bibliotheca Sacra 146 (April-June 1989): 148-170.
Gresham, Charles R. What the Bible Says About Resurrection. Joplin, MO: College Press, 1983.
Guthrie,  Donald. New Testament Theology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1981.
Habermas, Gary R., and Michael R. Licona. The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.
Hailey, Homer. A Commentary on the Minor Prophets. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972.
Hailey, Homer. A Commentary on Isaiah with Emphasis on the Messianic Hope. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1985.
Harris, Murray J. From Grave to Glory: Resurrection in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.
Hurtado, Larry W. Mark. New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1989.
Kruse, Colin G. The Gospel According to John: an Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Rev. Ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.
Ladd, George Eldon. I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.
Lightfoot, Neil R. Jesus Christ Today: A Commentary on the Book of Hebrews. Abilene, TX: Bible Guides, 1976.
Lucas, Ernest. Daniel. Apollos Old Testament Commentaries.  Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002.
Marshall, I. Howard. The Book of Acts: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.
Morris, Leon. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.
Morris, Leon. "Resurrection of Jesus Christ." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. 4: 150-154.
Muller, Richard A. "Resurrection." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. 4: 145-150.
Myers, Allen C. "Death." Internation Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. 1: 898-901.
Stein, Robert. "Was the Tomb Really Empty?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 20 (March 1977): 23-29.
Willis, John T. First and Second Samuel. Living Word Commentary. Abilene, TX: ACU Press, 1982.
Willis, John T. Isaiah. Living Word Commentary. Abilene, TX: ACU Press, 1984.

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